陈毅与对联的故事

来源:鬼怪吧 作者:孟红 对联故事 2016-12-30
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中国共产党的干部应当是能文能武、多才多艺的优秀之辈。而陈毅元帅正是这样的干部的杰出代表。他为党和人民的革命与建设事业殚精竭虑艰苦奋斗了一辈子,立下了卓越的功勋。他不但是身经百战和足智多谋的将军,而且还是一位博学多识、造诣很深、才华横溢的诗人,从他十分喜欢创作的对联之系列作品即可从中略见一斑。作为文学艺术之_种的对联虽然文字简短、内容比较单纯,但其立意新颖、深刻,或则以其崇高的意境感染人和熏陶人,或则以其闪烁着的智慧的光芒激励人和鼓舞人。陈毅所作的这些对联由于语言精练,言简意赅,工整对仗,颇具匠心,以特有的传统文艺形式来表现新思想新内容,起到了意想不到的极好的宣传鼓动效用;元帅那令人钦佩的过人胆识、智慧、学识、才思、襟怀、气质和革命艺术及高尚风范也尽现其中。欣赏它,既可以得到思想方面的收获,又能增强自己的艺术修养。

(一)

陈毅留法求学期间,因积极从事革命活动被法当局驱逐出境,押送回国。1922年冬回到四川省乐至县家乡。这时,家已破产。他全家20多人一起挤住在陈家祠堂的破屋里,他的心里很不是滋味。1923年春节来临,母亲让陈毅写一副对联总算多少表示一下过年的味道。写什么好呢?他看到家乡的亲友和广大劳苦大众生活的凄凉凋敝,又联想到中国大地正在酝酿着一场革命,十分感慨。为此,他泼墨提笔写出一副别开生面、耐人寻味的对联贴在自家门上:

年难过年难过年年难过年年过

事无成事无成事事无成事事成

横批:春待来年

当时陈毅年龄只有20出头,这副鼓舞斗志的对联表达了他豁达的胸怀、崇高的革命理想和将革命进行到底的坚强决心。

想到来年,陈毅辗转反侧,久久不能入睡,他索性披衣起坐,心潮澎湃地又写下了一首《除夕吟》的诗:“年年难过啼饥寒,处处环境亦皆然;待到一朝风雷震,谁说苦尽不生甜。”

(二)

1928年12月,陈毅等领导的红四军,同彭德怀率领的起义部队在新城胜利会师。在喜悦豪迈之余,陈毅感慨万端地为庆祝大会洋洋洒洒写出一副极富宣传鼓动力的对联:

在新城,演新戏,欢迎新同志,迎接新胜利;

除旧貌,破旧习,打倒旧军阀,摧毁旧世界。

(三)

抗日战争爆发后,国共两党达成协议,将我党领导的南方各省游击队,统编成“国民革命军新编第四军”。司令员陈毅率新四军第一、二支队,挺进苏南敌后即南京东南百余里的茅山地区,建立了江南第一块抗日游击根据地。

这个时候,陈毅很注重做党的抗日民族统一战线工作。经常巧妙利用对联来帮他做这一工作即是鲜明的一例。毛泽东主席曾经说过:“没有文化的军队是一个愚蠢的军队,愚蠢的军队是战胜不了敌人的。”而对毛泽东这样的论述理解最为深刻的可能就数陈毅这样的将领们了,他们当初遭遇的最为困惑的不是强大的敌人以及敌人手中的精良武器,而是民众对这支队伍的认同,特别是民众中有影响力的上层人物的认同。在当时,这些人往往又把共产党的部队当作历代农民起义的“草莽英雄”,有胆无识,怕是成不了气候,内心里还真有点瞧不起。比如抗日战争时期,苏北有些开明绅士虽然赞成共产党“团结一致抗日”的主张,但起初把新四军多少有些不放在眼里。

陈毅初到盐阜时住在一位士绅家中,这位士绅自以为有些学识,看不起摆弄枪杆子的来客,让陈毅有一种说不出的感觉,这一种说不出来的感觉终于有一天明显地暴露出来了——这位士绅故意要与将军吟诗作对,这在当时是最能衡量一个人水平的最好办法。他说:读红楼,看宝黛钗调情大观园。

陈毅不假思索,脱口而出:阅西厢,览张孙杜斗法普济寺。

这位士绅听后愣了,好长时间没有说出话来,他为他的偏见感到羞愧不已,他想不到身穿土布军装的军人竟然是如此有才华的文人。陈毅见他讶然模样,不禁宽厚地畅笑起来,而且借机向他介绍了革命队伍中许多能才名将。从此,这位绅士对陈毅及他的部队高看一眼、敬佩十分,并影响了一个层面的人。

“对联”之事使陈毅深感诗文是对枪杆子里出政权的一个不可或缺的补充,感受到了真正的“别人怀抱剑,我有笔如刀”的微妙。

(四)

1940年春,新四军挺进纵队奉命东进抗日,进驻郭村。继续东进,泰州是必经之路,而泰州是国民党鲁苏皖游击总指挥部的驻地,总指挥是李明扬,副总指挥是李长江。二李在国民党内部是杂牌军,经常受到国民党江苏省主席韩德勤的排挤。为配合蒋介石掀起的反共逆流,韩德勤改变了策略,要与二李“捐弃前嫌,重修旧好,共同反共”。原来保持中立的二李开始与新四军为敌,泰州成了挺进纵队东进的障碍。要保证顺利东进,必须通过镇江北固山佛寺老方丈,做通其弟子李明扬的工作。为此,陈毅决定亲自上山拜佛。

这天,陈毅化装成南洋商人,侦察连长小吴化装成侍从上山了。不巧,北固山因死了一位小和尚正忙着做佛事。老方丈亲自出门解释说:“客商请退,北固山死了个和尚。”陈毅接道:“啊!西佛国添了尊如来,我更应敬香了。”老方丈见答语与自己所说恰成一联,想必非等闲之辈,只得请他入内。

老方丈亲自陪客人游玩山景。当陪陈毅登上凌云亭时,老方丈口中念道:“美境奇境天仙境:”

陈毅接着对道:“釜山焦山北固山。”

老方丈听罢,对“客商”暗生几分敬意。陈毅乘机打听起泰州那位参谋长的事来。

老方丈警觉起来,误以为“儒商”做军火生意,便有意避开,他面对茫茫大江,感叹道:“佛家四大皆空。”

陈毅以沉痛的语气回敬道:“神州半片俱碎。”

老方丈听了,心中不禁一动,爱国之心顿生。他又把陈毅领到山前的观音堂,合掌闭目,念念有词:“祈求大慈大悲观音。”

陈毅也合掌闭目道:“拯救多灾多难人民。”

陈毅几次妙答,皆借题发挥,不仅词意相联,且对仗工整。老方丈重新打量来者,果见气度不凡,暗想必有来头,不由得改变了态度和语气。

尤其是听到“人民”二字后,老方丈对“客商”产生了怀疑,于是来到“甘露寺”借题试探道:“甘露寺内他孙刘结亲赔荆州。”

陈毅自然洞悉其意,便不再打哑谜,开诚布公地亮出了自己的身份和来意,朗朗对答道:“扬子江畔我陈李合作救中华。”

老方丈闻昕大惊失色:“你是……”陈毅连忙躬身合掌:“居士陈毅拜佛!”进而说明自己正想与“泰州二李”联系合作,很需要他这样的人从中相助斡旋。

陈毅的韬略方针及其坦诚态度,终于说服了这位清高自守、远避世事的老方丈,对于威震大江南北的新四军名将亲自登门相见已是十分感动,面对他的文采才华更是佩服不己,他不禁由衷地赞叹道:“雄才伟略大将军!”

Introduce:The cadre of the Chinese Communist ought to be Wen Nengwu, can all-round outstanding generation. And the crackajack delegate that Chen Yi marshal is such cadre. His revolution for party and people and Lv of exhaust of essence of construction career exhaust struggled difficultly all one's life, stand left outstanding meritorious service. He not only the general that is battle-scarred and resourceful, and or erudite the poet with much knowledge, very deep, brilliant attainment, the series work of the couplet that likes creative work very from him can see one spot from syncopation. The couplet that as literature artistic _ plants although brief, content compares the character pure, but its conception is novel, deep, or edify a person with support of the people of its great artistic conception infection, or the ray drive person of the wisdom that twinkling with its and stimulant person. These couplet that Chen Yi makes because the language is chastening, concise and comprehensive, carefully and nearly a matching of both sound and sense in two lines, provide craftsmanship quite, will behave new idea new content with characteristic traditional and literary form, the wonderful propagandist agitate effectiveness that removed expect to be less than; Marshal that is praiseworth outstanding courage and insight, wisdom, knowledge, creativeness, bosom, temperament and revolutionary art and exalted wind Fan Ye all show among them. Admire it, can get the results of thought respect already, the art that can enhance oneself again is cultural. (One) during Chen Yi leaves law attend school, because undertake revolutionary activity actively by law authorities renvoi, send under escort goes back to the motherland. The winter returned Sichuan 1922 the province is happy to prefectural home town. At this moment, the home already went bankrupt. 20 much people squeeze his family together, flavor is not very in his heart. The Spring Festival came 1923, the mother lets Chen Yi write a pair of couplet to more or less express the flavour that spend the New Year at long last. It what write is good to what write? The dreariness that he sees the relatives and friends of home town and broad and careladen people live is destitute, associate to Chinese earth to brewing a revolution again, very sigh with emotion. For this, his splash-ink carries a pen to draw up the couplet of a pair of having sth new, afford for thought sticks on oneself door: Year sad year sad and annual cross a thing hard not to have accomplish sth thing to become a horizontal scroll bearing an inscription without accomplish sth thing without accomplish sth year after year too: Spring need the coming year Chen Yi age has 20 to come forward only at that time, the couplet of this deputy encouragement fight conveyed his open-minded bosom, great revolution ideal and the adamancy that have revolution after all to be determined. Think of the coming year, chen Yi tosses about, for a long time cannot fall asleep, he wraps around simply sit since the garment, feel an upsurge of emotion the ground wrote down again " chant of the New Year's Eve " poem: "Be hungry of annual and sad caw is cold, everywhere environmental Yi Jieran; Need shock of tempest of in one day, who says suffering all is not born sweet. " (2) in December 1928, the Gong Sijun of the leader such as Chen Yi, the uprise unit that heads with Peng Dehuai triumphantlies join forces in new city. In joyance bold and generous, ground of multifarious of Chen Yi deep feeling is congratulatory congress at great length