海昏侯为何只当了27天皇帝

来源:鬼怪吧 作者:张建斌 皇帝故事 2017-12-20
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爷爷汉武帝“惹祸”

汉武帝是刘贺的祖父,刘贺的父亲刘髆,正是有“倾国倾城”之貌,深受汉武帝宠幸的李夫人所生。天汉四年(公元前97年),刘贺被封为昌邑王(约在今山东巨野县境)。

汉武帝是一位雄才大略的皇帝,他继文景之后,开创了西汉王朝前所未有的强盛局面。然而在他晚年也出现了严重的统治危机,一方面是由于长期的对外扩张、个人的奢侈、用法的严苛,使得国库空虚,社会矛盾尖锐;另一方面,汉武帝与太子刘据之间因个性及治国理念的差异潜伏着矛盾,加之武帝晚年身体不好,于是奸臣江充从中挑拨,认为是有人利用巫蛊作祟,酿成了“巫蛊之祸”。

最终,戾太子及卫皇后自杀,卫氏均被诛杀,唯一的幸存者仅有太子之孙,汉武帝的曾孙,即后来的汉宣帝。

“巫蛊之祸”发生后,汉武帝也逐渐意识到戾太子是被人冤枉的,又大肆处置因迫害太子而上位的那些人,来为太子平反昭雪,并下罪己诏,追悔以前的过失,将国家战略由对外扩张转向安定生产方面,这即是著名的“轮台诏”,因此避免了西汉王朝倾覆的危险。

“巫蛊之祸”后,继承人的选择便成为问题。征和三年(公元前90年),贰师将军李广利(李夫人之兄)与亲家丞相刘屈氂密谋立刘髆为太子。然而刘髆并不是汉武帝中意的人选,事发后,李广利投降匈奴,刘屈氂被腰斩。

后元元年(公元前88年),即汉武帝去世的前一年,刘去世,其死因不明,或许其中有隐情。最终,汉武帝选择了少子刘弗陵即位,是为汉昭帝,并以霍光、金日、上官桀、桑弘羊辅政,霍光成为了“话事人”。

霍光挑中了“软柿子”刘贺

霍光本是西汉名将霍去病同父异母之弟,他谨小慎微,加上霍去病的关系,受到汉武帝的信赖,故最终能受遗诏辅政。汉昭帝统治期间,霍光通过一系列举动排除了桑弘羊、上官桀等异己,最终总揽朝政,政由己出。

可是,汉昭帝年仅22岁便去世了,又无子嗣,谁来做新皇帝?这个难题自然也落到了霍光头上。

昭帝无子,新皇帝自然首选汉武帝的其他儿子,当时唯独广陵王刘胥尚在,在群臣讨论时,多数人主张立广陵王。不过,广陵王“力能扛鼎,手格猛兽”,颇为出众,霍光对他很不放心,生怕他日后成为一大威胁。恰好这时有人上书迎合霍光的想法,于是,霍光以上官太后(霍光外孙女)的名义下诏,派人迎接昌邑王刘贺(刘死后袭位为昌邑王),以奔丧的名义入长安即位。

至于为何选择刘贺,霍光大概是基于以下几点考虑:第一,刘贺辈分比刘胥低,更便于利用上官太后来“称大辈”;第二,刘贺还不到20岁,在政治上基本没啥想法;第三,据说刘贺还“很傻很天真”,更易为霍光掌控。

就这样,刘贺传奇性地君临天下了。

在位不到一月被废黜

然而,刘贺的传奇并未结束,才刚刚开始。

按理,这么一位仁兄被霍光控制顺理成章,然而事情的发展却让人大跌眼镜。在即位短短27天后,刘贺就被霍光废黜了。

史书记载,刘贺被废的主要原因是他淫乱,不守礼法,包括什么奔丧途中违反各种规定好似旅行啦;到长安城外应该哭丧,刘贺却说嗓子痛,哭不出来啦;即位之后,又行淫乱,沉湎于酒色啦……总之各种不靠谱,以至于在废黜时,皇太后听取大臣汇报,罗列他的斑斑劣迹,都听不下去了,直说“够了”!

当然,事实果真如此吗?恐怕不完全是这样,因为历史是胜利者书写的,对于被废的刘贺而言,历史的记载免不了有丑化渲染的成分。

根本上來说,刘贺被废还是权力斗争的结果,从刘贺即位后的一些举动来看,他貌似在着手恢复皇帝权力,自然引起了霍光的警惕和不满。这应该是霍光废刘贺的主要原因。

从废立的过程来看,几乎也是霍光的个人权势在主导。霍光先是私下与车骑将军张安世密谋废立之事,而后在未央宫召集群臣会议。当提出要废皇帝时,事出突然,吓得没人敢表态,这时霍光的亲信田延年拿着剑站出来说:“今天的事情得当机立断,谁不赶紧表态,我就把他给斩啰!”震慑之下,大臣们只得纷纷叩头,表示听从大将军安排。

装疯卖傻富贵—生

刘贺被废后,武帝曾孙,“巫蛊之祸”后幸存下来,长于民间的刘洵(初名刘病已)被择立为帝。霍光之所以选择刘洵,自然还是觉得他容易控制。

然而,霍光再次看走了眼。霍光生前,汉宣帝委政于他,表面恭敬有礼,内心却非常忌惮。霍光死后不足三年,汉宣帝通过一系列的政治手腕将霍家族灭,成功剪除了霍氏的势力。

当然,汉宣帝仍然面临着废帝刘贺的遗留问题。刘贺被废后,依然回到昌邑,但并无封爵,仅仅赐予他汤沐邑两千户,而原来王家的财物都赐予了他。

最初,汉宣帝对刘贺是忌讳和防范的,曾命令当地太守张敞暗中进行监视。张敞多次跑到刘贺家中调查暗访,并将情况汇报给汉宣帝,说刘贺“年约二十六七,身体萎靡,仪态不端,妻儿成群,行为言语略显白痴呆傻”。汉宣帝这才终于放心了,并封刘贺为海昏侯(今江西南昌),以彰显自己的“仁德”。

神爵三年(公元前59年),刘贺去世。从公布的海昏侯墓厚重的随葬品来看,即便是在废黜之后,这位昔日天子仍然享受着锦衣玉食的奢华生活,这显然与被废时仍被允许继续享用原来的王家财物有关。

Introduce:Emperor of grandfather Chinese fierce " ask for trouble " the grandfather that Han Wu emperor is Liu He, father Liu Zuo of Liu He, have just about " extremely beautiful " appearance, the Mrs. Li place that bestows favor on favour by Chinese fierce emperor is strange. Day Chinese 4 years (BC 97 years) , liu He is sealed to be prosperous city king (be in about today Shandong is gigantic wild county condition) . Chinese fierce emperor is the emperor of a great talent and bold vision, after scene of his afterwards article, initiated the powerful and prosperous phase with unprecedented dynasty of the Western Han Dynasty. Also appeared in his old age however severe regnant crisis, as a result of,be on one hand long-term external the Yan Ke of the luxury of outspread, individual, usage, make the treasury empty, social contradiction is acerb; On the other hand, chinese fierce emperor and prince Liu are occupied between because individual character reachs the difference conceal of concept of manage state affairs to wear,contradict, body of old age of emperor of together with fierce is bad, then river of treacherous court official is filled from which provocative, consider as somebody to use exercise evil influence of witch a legendary venomous insect, led to " the disaster of witch a legendary venomous insect " . Final, crime prince reachs the suicide after Wei Huang, defend a family name to all be put to death kill, exclusive survival is only of prince grandson, the great-grandson of Chinese fierce emperor, namely the Chinese announce emperor later. "The disaster of witch a legendary venomous insect " after happening, chinese fierce emperor also realizes crime prince is treated unjustly gradually, because persecute,deal with wantonly again prince and on those people, will be rehabilitated for prince exonerate, and oneself laying a blame instructs, the error before afterthought, national strategy by external dilate changes stable producer to the face, this is famous namely " annulus Tai Zhao " , because this avoided the risk of capsize of dynasty of the Western Han Dynasty. "The disaster of witch a legendary venomous insect " hind, the choice of heir becomes an issue. Ask for and 3 years (BC 90 years) , li Anli of two division general (the elder brother of Mrs. Li) bend with Liu of prime minister of relatives by marriage put-up Zuo establishing Liu is prince. However Liu Zuo is not the person selected with Han Wu favorite emperor, after the accident, li Anli surrenders Hun, liu bends by cutting sb in two at the waist. Hind yuan the first year of an era or the reign of an emperor (BC 88 years) , namely before one year when Chinese fierce emperor dies, liu dies, its cause of death is unidentified, have facts one wishes to hide among them probably. Final, chinese fierce emperor chose little child accession of Liu Fu hill, it is to be Chinese clear emperor, and with day of Huo Guang, gold, go up Yang Fuzheng of Guan Jie, Sang Hong, huoguang was become " word issue person " . In be being carried solely suddenly " soft persimmon " Liu He Huoguang is the younger brother with half-blooded disease of Huo Qu of famous general of the Western Han Dynasty originally, he is overcautious, increase the concern of Huo Qu disease, get the reliance of Chinese fierce emperor, reason can suffer involuntary discharge of urine finally to instruct complementary politics. During Chinese clear emperor is regnant, huo Guang eliminated Sang Hong through a series of act sheep, on the dissident such as Guan Jie, assume overall responsibility finally affairs of state, politics by oneself piece. But, chinese clear emperor year died 22 years old only, do not have male offspring again, who will become new emperor? Nature of this difficult problem also falls to suddenly bareheaded. Clear emperor is not had child, the other son of emperor of Han Wu of first selection of new emperor nature, at that time only alone Xu Shang of Liu of An Ling king is in, be in group