纸上谈兵的赵括其实是一代名将

来源:鬼怪吧 作者: 将相故事 2016-12-31
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提到长平之战,几乎人人想到的一个词语就是“纸上谈兵”,而创造出这个成语的人就是赵括。几千年来,赵括一直被作为一个反面形象来教育国人,要大家知道,理论是苍白的,只有实践才能出真知。

长平之战的起因实际上是秦军在完成强国路线之后。开始统一天下吞并六国的第一步。当时的山东六国要么国力过于衰弱,要么因为国内政治事件自我消耗。根据秦国远交近攻的战略思想。国力强盛的赵国成为秦国的第一块绊脚石。

其实从长平之战的规模和后来的影响看,实际上秦国扫清了赵国也就是取得了进攻其他山东六国的军事主动权,山东诸国中最强大的机动兵团一旦被扫灭,六国均暴露在秦军的军阵之下,无险可守。秦国逐步蚕食六国就是板上钉钉的事情了。

交战双方的实力对比

兵力:秦军60万

赵军45万

前期将领:王翦:廉颇

后期将领:白起:赵括

战争前期,双方成胶着状态。赵军据险不出,避其锋芒。廉颇的战法主要是看中了秦军劳师以远,后勤补给困难。廉颇的想法是大量的消耗秦军的国力,要知道60万大军的开销是相当巨大的。秦国的补给又属于远程补给,困难可想而知。待到秦军后勤出现了短缺,国内支付无力,秦军锐气自然受挫。二来,秦军长期远征必然疲敝。到时候自己尽出其精锐部队,可以一举荡平秦军。

这个想法固然不错。但是仔细分析,其实漏洞不少。1.赵国国力不济。2.廉颇前期战术单一。3.战和不定。外交失败。没有争取到其他六国的支援。4.低估了秦军的后勤保证力量和秦国的综合国力、

有了这四个致命的漏洞。再加上秦国的反间计,直接导致廉颇下台。至于新将领的人选问题,秦国的反间计当然是重要的条件,但是仍然是外因,而内因则是,赵国无人愿意接手这个烫手的山芋。赵国此时的名将尚有李牧、田完、乐毅、平原君赵胜。这几位赫赫有名的将领无一人愿意接手。他们中的三位联合推荐了赵括。

此时的赵括没有统帅过任何一支部队,这样的一名年轻人,得到名将一致推荐,从侧面反映出。赵括不光不是个无能之辈,而且是个潜力巨大的千古名将。

赵括得到任命之后。没有像其他几位名将一样为了保全自己的名声而退却,勇敢地接过了统帅的大印,以至于她的母亲要跟他断绝关系。赵括到任后形势相当危险,因为之前的廉颇被以保守误国的罪名免去了职务。而且此刻赵国的决策层不断催促赵括进军,其实此时的赵括未尝不知道不可轻易出击。

但是此时的赵括没有其他选择。他不能再继续走廉颇的路线,因为决策层不允许,一再催促其与秦军进行战略决战。而赵军士兵想必对敌我强弱是最有体会的。他们每天跟秦军对峙。对他‘们的强盛肯定有亲身体验。而赵国的决策层们远离前线。这个时候如果一再催促军队开展,很有可能会造成哗变等危险的情况,赵括为了贯彻高层的战略意图。只好对赵军的整个指挥系统进行了大换血,并进行了紧急动员,最后主动出击,在一系列的战役中与秦军血战。极大地杀伤了秦军的机动力量。在出击被包围后,断粮40余天的情况下,保持军队没有投降,没有哗变。这需要多大的军事才能啊。最后组织突围的时候并不是一盘散沙,赵括集中了赵军的精锐部队,分为四队,轮番攻击。采取典型的车轮战术,主攻秦军包围圈的一点。

无奈赵国没有及时组织国内部队来接应赵括,以至于突围失败。最后全军覆没。但即使是这样,赵括仍用这只断粮40多天的疲敝之师杀伤了秦将近30万人,己方在激战中伤亡人数基本为15万左右。这是一个只会纸上谈兵的人做出来的成绩吗,显然不是。归根结底,长平之战的失败,主要责任是赵国的战略决策层来负。他们在军事上没有及时动员国内的后备力量,和举国支援。反而一再越权指挥军事行动。并在外交上没有积极斡旋,取得其他诸国的协助。而赵括至少有两点值得去赞扬:1、这是一场在军事上很难取胜的战争,为了自己的名声,不顾国家安危,只有赵括这个年轻人勇敢地挑起了重担。甚至不顾自己母亲的反对。2、在军事实力处于劣势下,在高层直接干预军事指挥,自己难以行使实际指挥权的情况下,仍然最大限度的杀伤了秦军的有生力量,使得秦军伤亡巨大,即使取得长平之战的胜利。也无法继续攻击都城。这第一点体现的是他的爱国和勇敢。第二点体现的是他卓越的军事才华,和有敌无我的战斗气势,赵括真英雄也!

赵括在军事上唯一的失误就是在被包围后没有及时组织突围,而是在断粮40多天后才组织突围一要知道断粮40天之后的战斗力跟之前就有区别了。要是赵括能再被包围后组织军队立即反扑,死命突围,很有可能不会是全军覆没的下场。

赵括为什么要在等了40多天后才组织突围呢。无非是他对国内高层抱有幻想,他想国内不会坐视不管。要么会组织起另外一只有生力量在包围圈的后方向外攻击,对秦军进行两面夹击。另外在外交上如果有任何第三国伸出援手,直接进攻咸阳。则长平之围立解。

可惜的是赵国国内此时竟然毫无动作。眼看士兵一个接一个的饿死,赵括才明白了,不会有援军来了,只好率领饿了40多天的士兵。拼死决战。但是秦国国内听说已经包围了赵军,秦王亲自到前线,动员前线所有劳力直接支援,在物资上更是动用了全国的力量,外交上作出假象,迷惑诸国。在这样的力量对比下,赵括突围只能是无力回天。

可惜啊,赵括这样的英雄被肉食者误,最后还弄了个纸上谈兵的骂名?千古羞辱。公道何在啊!

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