秦淮名妓李香君

来源:鬼怪吧 作者: 历史故事 2017-10-12
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“淮水东边旧时月,夜深还过女墙来。”秦淮河依然在流,在传说里流,在现实里流,惹得多年后的读者也会在慵倦的氛围中重温一小段饱经烟熏火燎的金陵春梦。

媚香楼里的红姑娘

秦淮河边,有一座李香君的故居,叫媚香楼。李香君是媚香楼里的红姑娘。

李香君(1624-1653),又名李香,号“香扇坠”,原姓吴,苏州人。李香君八岁的时候,随养母李贞丽改吴姓为李,是南京秣陵教坊名妓。她歌喉圆润,但不轻易与人歌唱:丝竹琵琶、音律诗词亦无一不通,特别擅长弹唱《琵琶记》。

李香君身边时时带着一把绢扇,扇面是洁白的素绢,上面绘着一幅色彩浓艳的桃花图,故称之为“桃花扇”。

媚香楼的主人是李大娘。最给媚香楼撑脸面的就是李香君了。李香君身材娇小玲珑,眉眼儿俏丽生辉,小嘴唇微微上翘,显出几分俏皮,整个一个可人儿的模样。因她娇小而香艳,名字里又带个香字,所以客人们都戏称她是“香扇坠”。

诗画传情

李香君第一次见到侯方域并一见倾心时,李君才十六虚岁。

侯方域,字朝宗,河南商丘人,祖父侯执蒲是明朝的太常卿,父亲侯恂做过户部尚书,都是刚直不阿的忠臣。侯方域自幼随家乡名士倪元路学习诗书,敏慧多才,长进极快,崇祯十六年,二十二岁的侯方域前来南京参加礼部会试。自恃才学俊秀,年少气盛的侯方域并不把应试当成一回事儿,来到灯红酒绿、流彩溢香的六朝金粉之地。这天,经友人杨龙友的介绍,他慕名来到媚香楼,一睹“香扇坠”李香君的风采。一走入李香君的房间,只见室内书画古玩陈设有致,别有一番清新气息,与一般青楼迥异。李香君娇笑盈盈地请客人落了座,立即有诗婢送来清茶果品,此时候方域又被正面墙上挂着的一幅大型横幅吸引住了,这是一幅“寒江晓泛图”,寒雪弥漫的清江之上,一叶孤舟荡于江心,天苍苍,水茫茫,人寥寥,好一种悠远淡泊的意境,画上还题有一首诗:

瑟瑟西风净远天,

江山如画镜中悬。

不知何处烟波叟,

日出呼儿泛钓船。

画上没有落款,料非出自名家之手,侯方域问道:“此画是何人大作?”李香君见他对画如此关注,略带羞涩地说:“是小女子涂鸦之作,不足为道。”“是你所作?”侯方域简直不敢相信,这么一个娇小稚嫩的青楼女子,竟然做出这般神韵的诗画,真令人刮目相看。从这幅画开始,两人越谈越投机,彼此引为知己。临走前,侯方域索要了诗笔,作诗一首,送给李香君作为礼物,诗云:

绰约小天仙,

生来十六年:

玉山半峰雪,

瑶池一枝莲。

晚院香留客,

春宵月伴眠:

临行娇无语,

阿母在旁边。

欣赏倾慕的情怀已在诗中表露出来,一个是风流倜傥的翩翩少年,一个是娇柔多情、蕙质兰心的青楼玉女,接连几次交往之后,便双双坠入了爱河之中,缠绵难分。

重金资助

按当时的风尚,如果哪位客人钟情于一个妓女,只要出资举办一个隆重的仪式,再给妓院一笔重金,这个妓女就可以专门为这一位客人服务了,这套手续称为“梳拢”。梳拢所需资金,因梳拢对象名位高低而不同,像李香君这样一位名妓,梳拢必须邀请大批有头有脸的风流雅士,宴会的级别自然要高,还要付一笔丰厚的礼金给鸨母,才不至于失面子。如今侯方域是出来赶考的,身边当然没带太多的银子,有心想梳拢李香君,却又无能为力。

正在他犯难之时,友人杨龙友雪中送炭,给了他大力的资助。当时他一心急着办事,并没仔细考虑杨龙友为何送钱给他,只说日后一定还他。有了资本,梳拢仪式很顺利地办了下来,当夜侯方域将一柄上等的镂花象牙骨白绢面宫扇送给了李香君作定情之物,肩上系着侯家祖传的琥珀扇坠。李香君深察侯郎的真心挚意,从此便留他住在了媚香楼中。

一日,侯方域偶然想起杨龙友家中并不富裕,哪里来得那一笔重金资助自己呢?他与李香君说起此事,香君也觉得事出蹊跷,便让侯方域问个明白。经过一番追问,终于弄清了缘由,原来那笔钱并不是杨龙友拿出来的,而是通过杨龙友赠送给侯方域的一个人情。阮大铖是何等人物?他为什么要送钱给侯方域呢?事出自然有因。阮大铖是明神宗万历四十四年的进士,多年在朝中为官,此人阴险诡诈,与宦官魏忠贤狼狈为奸。搅得朝中乌烟瘴气,明思宗崇祯元年诛杀了宦官魏忠贤,阮大铖作为逆贼同僚被朝廷削籍免官,退到南京闲居。失位的阮大铖并不甘心就此埋没,他在南京广交江湖人士,暗中谋划,准备伺机东山再起。江南义土陈贞慧、吴应箕等人察觉了阮大铖的不轨之心,对他的阴谋进行了揭露。阮大铖既恼怒又害怕,无奈此时手中无权,拿他们没有办法,只好闭门谢客,深居简出,只与马士英暗中往来。

 

侯方域与陈贞慧、吴应箕等人因志同道合而结下了莫逆之交,阮大铖得知侯方域在南京城正缺钱用,马上打通关节,设法让杨龙友把钱送给了侯方域,为防止他拒绝,开始还让杨龙友暂瞒实情。他这样做的目的无非是想通过拉拢侯方域而缓和与陈贞慧等人的关系,使他们不与自己作对,自己则好为所欲为。

变卖首饰

侯方域了解真相后十分气愤,他素来痛恨阮大铖的人品和奸行,曾为陈贞慧等人的口诛笔伐拍手称快,如今不知不觉中竟用了阮大铖的钱,怎不让他恶心难忍呢!他决意立即把钱退还阮大铖,以断绝奸人的不良用心,可李香君一时间到哪里去筹这笔钱呢?李香君很快察觉了他的心事,就变卖了几件心爱的首饰,又从姐妹们那里借了些钱,总算凑够了数,交给侯郎。侯方域被香君的知情明理深深打动了,他紧拥着她娇小的身躯,感激得说不出一句话来。

那些钱又经杨龙友之手退给了阮大铖,阮大铖见状,大感脸面丢尽,咬牙切齿地自语道:“老夫有意与他们攀交,这些小子们竟如此气傲,看老夫将来有朝一日,一定要给他们点颜色瞧瞧!”

安慰情郎

时局果然就发生了变化,李白成攻破北京,崇祯皇帝自缢殉国,福王朱由崧在一帮旧臣拥护下,在南京建立了弘光新皇朝,马士英成了执政大臣,随即启用阮大铖为兵部侍郎,继而又升为兵部尚书。

大权重握,阮大钺得意之极,马上着手清除异己,陈贞慧、吴应箕等转眼被捕下狱。侯方域得知消息,知道黑手很快就会伸向自己。

这是一个没有月亮也没有星星的夜晚,媚香楼中昏暗的烛光映照着两个难舍难分的人儿,时间一点一点地过去。侯方域几次想挪动脚步可都又停下来,怀里紧紧抱着李香君,眼中满是凄切。他叹了一口气,说:“人生难得一知己,天下伤心是别离!”

李香君强忍着夺眶而出的泪水,安慰情郎道:“有别离的苦楚,才有重逢的喜悦,好男儿志在四方,岂可在媚香楼中消磨了豪情壮志。况且人生离合,在乎心而在不在形,彼此倘若不能心心相印,即使日日同床共枕,亦如相隔千里,只要你我永结同心,虽然远隔千山万水,照样可以魂来梦往!”

李香君的一番话给了侯方域一份坚毅、一分力量,他终于挥泪离开了南京城,渡江北上,投奔到正督师扬州的史可法麾下。史可法在扬州加紧操练兵马,准备抵挡清军的南下。侯方域被安排在史可法身边做文书工作。他与南京的李香君频频书信往来,倾诉相思,畅谈抱负,彼此的心紧紧连在一起。

以死拒婚

自侯郎去后,李香君征得李大娘的同意,洗尽铅华,闭门谢客,天天凝视着那把定情的绢扇。一心等候公子归来,有许多猎奇好艳的达官显贵偏偏不肯死心,纷纷上门打她的主意,无奈此女吃了秤砣铁了心。李香君以坚决的态度予以回绝,客人们只好望楼兴叹。

 

不久,佥都御史田仰督运漕粮由扬州来到南京,成了弘光帝器重的红人。马士英与阮大铖为弘光臣子举行盛大的酒筵为田仰接风洗尘。席间,田仰表示久闻秦淮河名妓李香君艳名,此行想顺便把她收为侍妾。这一下可让阮大铖逮住了机会,他早就想报复侯方域和李香君了,可惜侯方域闻风远走,害得他无从下手:如今若把李香君送给田仰为妾,一方面讨好了田仰,一方面也撕散了那对鸳鸯,聊泄心中积愤,岂不是一箭双雕!

第二天,阮大铖派人携带重金前往媚香楼行聘,李香君一口拒绝。

谁知,迎娶的花轿已经吹吹打打地来到了媚香楼下,这便是阮大铖订下的强娶之计。娶亲的队伍人多势众,李大娘阻拦不住,已直冲进楼里,大有不抬走人决不罢休的劲头。李香君被逼无奈,只好佯装答应。声言先回屋打扮,妆成立即上轿。娶亲的人在楼下客厅中坐等了好一阵子,猛听得楼外“呼”的一声闷响,接着传来侍婢的惊呼:“不好了,小姐跳楼了!”

娶亲的人见闹出了人命案,吓得不敢再纠缠,一声不吭地抬着花轿溜回去了。

血染桃花扇

李大娘与媚香楼的姐妹将李香君抬回屋中,又急忙打发人找医生。住在附近的杨龙友闻讯赶过来,院中已空寂无人,只有那把带血的绢扇孤零零地落在地上。杨龙友拾起绢扇,端视良久,深为李香君的贞烈品性感慨嘘啼,一个奇妙的构思在他脑海中形成。进屋探视过昏迷不醒的李香君后,杨龙友带着绢扇离开媚香楼,回到自己家里,立刻在书房中坐下,取出一枝不曾用过的羊毫笔,就着扇面上的血迹稍作点染,血迹便成了一朵朵鲜艳欲滴的桃花,再以墨色略衬枝叶,一副灼灼动人的桃花图便完成了。杨龙友对扇沉吟良久,又在扇面上题下三个小字——桃花扇,准备等李香君伤愈后奉还。

幸亏媚香楼不高,摔伤后的李香君经过一段时间的精心调治,伤势总算痊愈了,这时田仰已离开南京,娶妾之事也就不了了之。

征入宫中

然而阴险恶毒的阮大铖并不想就此放过她。国难当头,弘光皇帝不思治军理国,反而日夜沉醉在声色享乐之中。他嫌宫中歌姬所唱的歌内容单调乏味,阮大铖便大献殷勤,亲自执笔撰写歌词剧本,再到秦淮河畔的歌楼里挑选歌妓,送人宫中给弘光帝取乐。等李香君伤愈后,阮大铖立即打着圣谕的幌子,将她征人宫中充当歌姬。

这一招李香君着实无法抵挡!带着无限的眷念和遗憾,李香君进了皇宫,怀里紧紧抱着那把鲜血写成的桃花扇。

逃出皇宫

不久,清兵攻下扬州,直逼南京,弘光帝闻风而逃,最终被部将劫持献给了清军,随后南京城不攻自破。

南京城破之时,李香君随着一些宫人趁夜色逃出了“牢笼”。李香君高一脚、低一脚地向秦淮河畔走去,只见到处火光冲天,媚香楼也已隐人一片火海之中。李香君心里一沉,脚下发软,一下子跌坐在桥面上。

正巧,这时当年为李香君教曲的师傅苏昆生路过长板桥,无意中发现了坐在地上发傻的李香君,连忙将她扶起,带着她随逃难的人流,奔往苏州。其实,这天夜里侯方域也正在南京城里,他是在扬州兵败后脱身返回南京的。到达时正逢清兵肆虐屠城,他火烧火燎地赶到秦淮河边,却看到媚香楼燃成一团烈焰,他在媚香楼附近徘徊寻找了整整一夜,却没能见到李香君的影子:其实那时李香君就坐在离媚香楼仅有一箭之遥的长板桥上,无奈老天戏弄人,偏偏没让他俩相遇。

患上肺痨

李香君在苏昆生的照顾下来到苏州,由于一路颠簸劳苦,精神上又极度悲伤,她已身染重病。几经周折,李香君找到了昔日好友卞玉京。卞玉京热情收留了李香君在小院住下,并请来名医为她诊治。几经诊察,才知李香君患的是肺痨,这种病在当时是无药根治的,只能滋养调理,勉强延续着生命。

病中的李香君日夜捧着那把血染的桃花扇,回忆着侯郎的音容笑貌,泪水浸透了衣襟。

李香君病逝

局势稍微平静一些,苏昆生就返回南京打听侯方域的消息。经多方探问,证实了侯方域回老家商丘去了。苏昆生自愿北上商丘,为一对有情人传递消息。

苏昆生北上不久,李香君开始咯血,病情一日重于一日,终于气息难继。弥留之际,她挣扎着让卞玉京为自己剪下一绺青丝,小心翼翼地用红绫包好,再把它绑在桃花扇上,交给卞玉京,请她转交给侯方域,并留下遗言说:“公子当为大明守节,勿事异族,妾于九泉之下铭记公子厚爱。”

侯方域得到苏昆生送来的消息,立刻启程,赶往苏州。可惜,当他来到卞玉京的小院,李香君已于前夜咽下了最后一口气,只给他留下一片挚情,令他心伤欲绝。

“淮水东边旧时月,夜深还过女墙来。”秦淮河依然在流,在传说里流,惹得多年后的读者也会在慵倦的氛围中重温一小段饱经烟熏火燎的金陵春梦。

 

Introduce:"Month of old times of the eastern side of water of the Huaihe River, late at night too female still wall comes. " river of the Huaihe River of the Qin Dynasty still is flowing, flow in fokelore, flow in reality, the reader after be being offended for years also can be in the atmosphere of languid tired the golden hill spring dream that reviews burn of fire of sootiness of a paragraph of small full classics. By the side of the river of the Huaihe River of red girl the Qin Dynasty in fawn on sweet building, have the former residence of a Li Xiangjun, call fawn on sweet building. Li Xiangjun is the red girl in fawn on sweet building. Li Xiangjun (1624-1653) , renown Li Xiang, date " sweet fan drops " , original last name, suzhou person. Li Xiangjun is 8 years old when, along with foster mother Li Zhenli changes the surname is plum, it is Nanjing hay hill prostitute of name teaching lane. Her singing voice is fruity, but do not sing with the person easily: Poetic word also does not have lute of traditional stringed and woodwind instrument, swing to be illogical, special be good at singing and playing " the lute is written down " . There is fan of a thin silk constantly beside Li Xiangjun, covering of the fan is white element thin silk, draw is worn above the peach blossom graph of rich and gaudy of a colour, friend says for " peach blossom fan " . The host of fawn on sweet building is Li Daniang. Most what maintain face to fawn on sweet building is Li Xiangjun. Delicate and exquisite of Li Xiangjun figure, eyebrow eye handsome unripe brightness, small lip go up slightly become warped, show a few minutes nifty, whole but person about. Because petite and she is sweet colourful, a sweet word is taken again in the name, so guests make fun of say she is " sweet fan drops " . The poem draws the Li Xiangjun that express feeling to first time sees Hou Fang territory and see when admiring, mr Li just 16 nominal age. Hou Fang region, word Chao Zong, person of Henan business grave, grandfather Hou Zhipu is Ming Dynasty too Chang Qing, father Hou Xun has become minister of the Ministry of Revenue in feudal China, it is upright and outspoken not the official loyal to his sovereign of A. From a child of Hou square region follows Ni Yuan of home town Mingshi book of path study poetry, clever much ability, progress is splitting, the Chongzhen Emperor 16 years, hou Fang of 22 years old comes to Nanjing to attend the Ministry of Rites in feudal China to be able to try before region. Self-reliant scholarship is pretty, the Hou square region that junior gas fills not should try regard as bout thing, come to the ground of the pink of 6 government gold with scene of debauchery, sweet excessive drifting cheer. This day, via the introduction of friend of friend poplar dragon, his Muming comes to fawn on sweet building, see " sweet fan drops " Li Xiangjun's elegant demeanour. Take Li Xiangjun's room, see display of antique of indoor painting and calligraphy has only send, do not have pure and fresh flavor one time, as disparate as general whorehouse. Li Xiangjun charming laughs be filled with be filled with the ground to asked a guest to fall, instantly poetic slave-girl delivers green tea fruit, a when await square region to be gone up to be being hanged by openly wall again right now large banner is attracted, this is " cold river Xiao Fantu " , on the Qing Jiangzhi that cold Xue Mi overflows, boat of one leaf Gu swings Yu Jiang heart, day grey, water is boundless and indistinct, the person is very few, good the artistic conception of a kind of a long time ago not seek fame and wealth, the problem returns to have a verse on the picture: Rustling west wind is clean far day, horizontally pivoted hung of beautiful scenery lens. Do not know old man of where mist-covered water, sunrise breathes out extensive angles boat. There is inscribe on the picture, the hand of a person of academic or artistic distinction of makings blame out, hou square region asks: "This picture is why