康有为暴毙之谜

来源:鬼怪吧 作者:通道 历史人物 2017-05-24
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七窍流血,猝死青岛

1927 年3 月18 日,康有为从上海搭船赴青岛。

面对波涛汹涌的大海,他回味起十天前的七十大寿。

寿筵前一天,溥仪派人送来了亲手书写的“岳峙渊清”匾额和一柄玉如意作为贺礼。这让康有为受宠若惊,居然重整前清官服,遥拜天恩,全然不管大清帝国的皇权已经消失了16 年。叩拜完毕,又挥笔写下一份“谢恩折”,由书记用小楷誊清,印了上千份,分赠前来祝寿的贺客———这也是他一生中最后一次以帝国贤臣的名义,给“皇上”写“奏折”。

寿筵当天,亲朋好友、门人弟子齐集上海“游存庐”为康有为祝寿。康的得意门生梁启超送来寿联:

述先圣之玄意袁整百家之不齐袁入此岁来年七十矣浴

奉觞豆于国叟袁至欢忻于春酒袁亲受业者盖三千焉浴

全联集《史记》《汉书》及《郑康成集》中的句子而成,天然贴切,把康有为比喻为孔圣人,这让一直以“康圣人”自居的康有为煞是喜欢。

然而,此时北伐军正浩浩荡荡进军上海,孙传芳连连败退,康有为十分慌张,想把全家转移到安全处,躲避北伐军的锋芒,这才有了青岛之行。

到青岛后,康有为住在先前买下的天游园别墅。3 月29 日,他来到中山路上的粤菜馆英记酒楼,参加同乡宴。喝了一杯橙汁后,他突然腹痛难忍,急忙回家。当夜呕吐不止,请来两位医生,其中一位日本医生诊断为食物中毒。30 日,呕吐了一夜的康有为感觉毒已清除,非常健谈,晚上照例夜观天象。可是观看了没多会儿,突然独自大呼:“完了,完了!”31 日凌晨2 时,他忽然对身边的人说:“中国我无立锥之地了,但我是不能死在外国的。”似有交代后事之意。5 时许,康有为“七窍出血而死”。

康有为的去世,颇得孔子“知天命”的精义。据康有为女儿康同璧在《南海康先生年谱续编》中记载,康有为过完七十大寿在准备离开上海之前,曾亲自检点遗稿,并将礼服携带,临行前还巡视了园中好几遍,说道:我与上海缘尽矣!然后把他的相片分赠给工友们,以作纪念,好像预知自己将永别一样。到青岛之后,写赐寿谢恩折时,未写数行就开始痛哭,写完后告诉家人说:“吾事毕矣!吾事毕矣!汝等可珍重此稿。”

另据康有为晚年在青岛结交的晚辈李可良在《我印象中之康有为》中记述:死前康有为曾对家属作过个别的安排与嘱咐,唯对于小妾九姑娘未曾说到,别人问他,他说,“她是跟我一路的,你们不必管了。”果然,康有为去世几天后九姑娘跟着死了。能够预知大限,使得康有为之死非同寻常,而且充满了神圣意味。

康有为死后不久,门人弟子要求溥仪谥之“仁忠”,但遭拒绝。又拟将其灵柩葬于清西陵光绪帝墓旁,让他们君臣相伴,也因经费不足作罢。十余天后,灵柩葬于青岛李村枣儿山(有人误作“象耳山”)。这是康有为生前从南方请了风水先生冒雨勘察了三天才选定的墓地。

据目睹过康有为葬礼的人说,当时的殡葬场面非常宏大,原本准备用两匹马的马车将棺木拉到枣儿山上,但因山势陡峭,马车根本上不去,最后只能由人抬上去。马车前面有一种架子装饰叫“罩”,扎了一个大花头。康有为的子女每人都穿了一身孝服,脚穿草鞋,下葬后子女们就把草鞋扔掉,赤脚回家,以表孝意。

康有为死时,妻妾子女大都不在身旁,门人弟子也都散落各地。梁启超在北京闻知噩耗后,失声痛哭,于当年4 月17 日召集康门弟子在宣武城南畿辅先哲祠举行公祭。弟子们涕泪双流,梁启超哽咽着宣读祭文:“吾师视中国如命……思托古以改制,作新民而迈进……繄百日之设施,实宏远而周详……后有作新中国史者,终不得不以戊戌为第一章。”

谁毒死了康有为?

因为康有为死时“七窍出血”,这极有可能是一种非正常死亡的迹象。多数人认定与中毒有关。但是否有人故意下毒,不得而知,于是便出现了种种猜测。

康同璧认为父亲是“被人在食物中投毒而导致死亡”。据康同璧的女儿罗仪凤的一份交代材料所记,康有为是被国民党下毒害死的,但这种说法迄今未见任何其他史料记载,因系康氏后人自述,值得重视并有待史家考证。

也有人说是慈禧太后生前所遣杀手下的毒。据说,戊戌变法失败后,慈禧曾派出四个刺客出京刺杀康有为。其中一人叫巫仿,慈禧曾赐给他白银10万两,命他秘密出京,刺杀康有为,杀康之后,另有赏赐和晋封。此后的二三十年间,他一直在寻找机会刺杀康有为,终于在青岛成功。1904 年,慈禧七十大寿之时,下诏赦免了一大批戊戌获罪人员,但不包括康、梁,可见他一直未被慈禧所原谅。但此种说法也有值得商榷之处,因为康有为晚年支持清室复辟,戊戌变法时的恩怨已发生变化。

康有为的另一位女儿康同环对以上两种说法都不赞同。她在《先父的墓碑》一文中这样写道:“康有为卒前挣扎痛苦,七窍都有血渍,当然是中毒的现象。不过所谓食物中毒,可能是英记酒楼的食品不洁所致,未必是因为政治斗争而牺牲的。”近年来,出现了第四种说法。青岛有位人文工作者姜茂森,从吕振文儿子的口中得知,康有为是被日本人投毒害死的。据这位吕氏后人说,当时英记酒楼的同乡宴请,吕振文也在座。康有为喝下橙汁后腹疼不已,还是吕振文用马车将他送回寓所。直到几十年后,吕振文才向儿子透露了实情:他是从日本天皇身边的人那里得到的确切消息,康有为是被日本人毒死的。因为康有为始终不同意溥仪跟着日本人走,还曾一度与溥仪一起和天皇对抗。为此,日本人一直怀恨在心。

这个曾为康有为撰写过墓志铭的吕振文,在1938 年变节求荣当了汉奸,成为日占当局控制下的青岛治安维持会九名委员之一,后来又先后出任伪青岛特别市财政局长、土地整理委员会委员长。吕振文为人气节固然令人不齿,但由此也可得出,“日本人下毒”之说应当具有一定的可信度。

除去上述种种猜测之外,关于康有为的死,还有一种比较离奇的说法。《万象》六卷九期曾刊出毛丹先生《康有为晚年》一文,转述台湾老报人关于康有为请德国医生移植猴子“青春腺”于自身的奇闻。文章说道,当年康有为偶然读到一篇文章,说俄国外科医生沃罗诺夫研究多年的返老还童术已获成功。他把类人猿的睾丸成功地移植到老年男性身上,可以使人明显年轻,记忆力、性机能等方面都大大增强,80 岁的老翁可以策马驱驰……康有为读至此,抛书拍案而起,高喊:“大清有救了!”

为避人耳目,康有为暗中通过至交、上海名医江逢治奔走,重金延聘擅长此术的德国名医冯·施泰勒为他移植睾丸。手术那天,康有为只带了一个仆人前往诊所,德国医生选取了一只年轻公猿的睾丸为其置换。手术成功后,康有为自我感觉甚佳,体力明显增强,步履轻捷,读书写字无丝毫疲劳,食欲也大增。

但好景不长,不到一月,其健康状况急转直下,精神日渐萎靡,身体也每况愈下。施泰勒闻讯而逃。康有为一怒之下,向法院起诉施泰勒“妖术欺世”,但未及法院开庭,即于1927 年初匆匆离世。此种说法比较荒谬,且无任何佐证。但从中我们可以看到康有为对大清朝的“忠诚”。

死后因“国学大师”而遭罪

“文化大革命”期间,由于康的“国学大师”身份以及“保皇派头子”的头衔,遭到了“革命大批判”的“红色风暴”。1966 年8 月,青岛市第五中学红卫兵打着红旗,路上喊着“破四旧立四新”等口号,到康的墓地掘坟开棺。但挖了一上午进展不大。中午学生们去吃饭了,留下一位姓赵的老师在此看守。

据目击此过程的人事后回忆:在掘开后的墓里面,有一个照壁似的石头墙壁,高约1.5 米,上面有四块独立的石头,刻有“国学大师”四字,每个字上都涂了红漆。石壁上方的平面,镶嵌着十多根两米长的石条,石条凿制时已设计咬合齿,石条之间咬合严密,几乎不留缝隙,当初康的棺椁就是由此悬下去的。在石拱门镶嵌着一块拱形石碑,高约80厘米,厚约35 厘米,黑色,学生将此碑左上角砸掉,钻入之后,整座墓穴才被打开。棺木为红松,约4 厘米厚,带有搬动用的扶手,棺材被打碎,暴露出白骨。与康有为同时死亡的3 岁幼女尸骨未动,仍丢在墓穴内,学生从墓中拿出一串珠子,一把金锁,这把金锁是美国华侨送的,正面刻有“先天下之忧而忧”,背面则是“国学大师”,康有为左右手中均有一枚金币,一枚为日本金币,另一枚为印度金币,还有一枚玉佩。康下葬时身穿中山装,右脚边有一沓蟒袍玉带和很多清朝服装,蟒袍玉带上的金丝随风飘舞,有的就缠在槐树上。墓穴里还有一小石碑,上刻康有为四子三女的名字。学生将康的骨头扬了一地。当时,坟墓前还有一石头供桌,长约1.5 米,厚约80 厘米,雕有四条腿,供桌的后面就是石碑。

待康有为的头骨被掏出来之后,红卫兵们把它绑在木棒上,游街示众,并高喊“打倒中国保皇派的祖师”。忙乱中还丢掉了下巴骨。

其时,正逢青岛博物馆与青岛市红卫兵总部联合举办“造反有理”展览会,负责人王集钦看到造反派如此对待康氏尸骨,便以摆展览为名要求红卫兵将头骨送到展览会,以便加以保护。开始有人写了一个“保皇派康有为的狗头”的说明牌,在王的一再要求下才改为“保皇派康有为的头颅”字样。展览结束后,康的头颅被扔在了台阶上。王找了一个木箱,将头骨放进去,又钉上盖子,冒着随时可能被打成“保皇派孝子贤孙”的危险,把它藏在办公室里。

1984 年,青岛市人民政府在浮山南麓(今青岛大学旁)决定重修康有为墓,并四处寻找康的头骨,王集钦这才将它献了出来。

Introduce:The seven apertures in the human head bleeds, sudden death Qingdao on March 18, 1927, health promising builds a boat to go to Qingdao from Shanghai. Face surfy sea, he recalls the 70 old age before rising 10 days. Birthday formerlies before today, person of broading appearance group delivered intimate personal letter to write " Yue Shiyuan is clear " a horizontal inscribed board and one handle jade serve as gift flexibly. This lets health promising feel extremely flattered, unexpectedly the honest and upright official before reforming is taken, yao does obeisance to day favour, perfect no matter the imperial power of great clear empire had disappeared 16 years. Kowtow do obeisance to end, brandish pen writes down " Xie En is folded " , use make a clear copy of of regular script in small characters by the secretary, imprinted on 1000, the He Ke ——— that congratulate on sb's birthday comes to before cent gives this also is the last time in his lifetime with the empire the name of virtuous official, to " the emperor " write " memorial to the throne " . Birthday formerlies that day, shanghai of assemble of child of person of close friends, door " You Cunlu " for health promising congratulate on sb's birthday. Health favorite pupil Liang Qichao delivers birthday couplet: The not neat Yuan that narrates whole a hunderd schools of Yuan of Xian Shengzhi profound meaning enters this year old of the coming year 70 bath acts according to Yu Guosou of wine cup beans the person that Yuan of wine of Yu Chun of Yuan Zhihuan Xin gets job in person builds 3000 Yan, natural and apt, it is health promising analogy aperture sage, this lets all the time with " health sage " the health promising of pose as evil spirit it is to like. However, right now the Northern Expeditionary Army is marching vast and mightily Shanghai, sun Chuanfang retreats in defeat again and again, health promising is very flurried, want to transfer the family to safe place, avoid the ability of the Northern Expeditionary Army, this ability had the travel of Qingdao. Arrive after Qingdao, health promising lives in the day pleasance villa that buys before. On March 29, house flower remembers the food of another name for Guangdong Province that he comes to to Zhongshan road wine shop, attend fellow villager dinner. After drinking juice of a cup of orange, he is abrupt bellyacke is borne hard, come home hastily. Vomit when night more than, invite two doctors, among them a Japanese doctor is diagnosed for bromatoxism. 30 days, vomitted the poison of health promising feeling of one night is cleared already, very conversable, as usual night watchs astronomical phenomena in the evening. But was watched,do not have when, breathe out suddenly greatly alone: "Was over, was over! " 31 days of before dawn 2 when, he says to the person beside suddenly: "I do not have China a tiny bit of land, but I am to cannot die in the foreign country. " be like have the idea that explains a funeral affair. 5 when make, health promising " the seven apertures in the human head bleeds and die " . Of health promising die, get Confucius quite " know destiny " justice of essence of life. Be in according to Kang Tongbi of health promising daughter " Nanhai continuation of health gentleman a chronicle of sb's life " in account, before health promising crosses 70 old age to leave Shanghai in preparation, ever kissed self check to choose a manuscript left unpublished by the author at his death, carry ceremonial robe or dress, return before before leaving perambulatory in garden several, say: I and Shanghai predestined relationship are used up! Send fellow workers his photo cent next, in order to make commemoration day, seem to foretell oneself will always