陆游的绝笔诗

来源:鬼怪吧 作者: 历史人物 2017-01-10
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宋宁宗嘉定三年(1210年),八十五岁的陆游一病不起,在临终前,留下了一首诗,表达了诗人的无奈以及对收复失地的期盼。

陆游出生后的第二年。金国占领了北宋的都城汴京(今河南开封);第三年把徽、钦二帝掳去,北宋亡国。而当钦宗之弟赵构逃到南方。在临安(今浙江杭州)建立了政权后,不但不收复失地。反而任命臭名昭著的汉奸秦桧做宰相,一意向金人屈膝求和。绍兴十二年(1142年)和议告成,赵构竟无耻到向金国皇帝自称臣子,并答应每年献银绢,跟金人划淮水为界。从此北方的大好河山沦入异族,而南宋小朝廷偏安一隅。苟延岁月。后来宋孝宗及宁宗,照旧屈辱求和。这一历史时期,不知有多少优秀儿女挺身而出,展开了不屈不挠的斗争,而陆游则是文学上的杰出代表。

1210年农历除夕这一天,人们都忙着守岁,而陆游家中的气氛却异常沉重——身患重病的陆游已经走到生命的尽头。他的六个儿子寸步不离守在床边,静静地望着这位戎马一生,饱经风霜的老人。陆游紧闭双眼艰难地呼吸着。突然,他“回光返照”似的睁开了双眼,眼睛闪烁着奇异的光芒。儿子知道父亲要说些什么,连忙拿过纸和笔。在儿子们的搀扶下。陆游艰难的支撑起身体。他望着窗外想:人死后万事皆空,我本来可以闭目而去。但唯有一件事放心不下呀,那就是国家统一。随之他写下:“死去元知万事空。但悲不见九州同。”看着自己的孩子。他吃力得说:“孩……子……们,你们一定要在南宋军队驱除敌虏,统一山河时……祭祀我的亡灵……把这凯旋的喜讯告诉我,让我在九泉之下也好……安……息……呀!”说完,他继续吃力地写道:“王师北定中原日。家祭毋忘告乃翁。”他手中的笔落到地上,身子无力地倒在床上,闭上了双眼。一只手直挺挺地指向北方。

这是1234年金朝被蒙古族灭亡之后,南宋政府从淮西调兵进驻开封城内。并从开封分兵收复了洛阳之后,妻子刘氏在兴奋之际。想到陆游的子孙一定会遵从他的遗嘱,把这个好消息祭告“乃翁”的。但是好景不长,那个歌舞湖山、奸臣当道的南宋小朝廷连暮气已深的金兵尚且不能抵抗,更何况这“方张之寇”的蒙古大军呢?多亏广大爱国军民奋起阻击,才使得这个风雨飘摇的政权又延续了四十多年。这时南宋遗民林景熙写了一首《读陆放翁诗卷后》,词意极为沉痛,其末四句云:

青山一发愁蒙蒙。干戈况满天南东。来孙却见九州同,家祭如何告乃翁!陆游的绝笔诗为《示儿》:死去元知万事空,但悲不见九州同。王师北定中原日,家祭无忘告乃翁。

Introduce:Ning Zongjia of the Song Dynasty decides 3 years (1210) , liu You take to one's bed and never leave it again of 85 years old, be in mortal before, left a poem, those who conveyed a poet is helpless and to recover lost territory expect. Liu You postnatal the 2nd year. The capital of capital another name for Kaifeng that Jin Guozhan got Northen Song Dynasty (today Henan unseals) ; The 3rd year 2 emperor capture goes to a badge, admire, a conquered nation of Northen Song Dynasty. And when Qin Zongzhi compose of younger brother Zhao escapes to south. In face how (today Zhejiang Hangzhou) after building political power, not only not recover lost territory. Appoint Chinese juniper of notorious traitor the Qin Dynasty to become prime minister instead, sue for peace of bend one's knees of person of one intent gold. Carry on promotes 12 years (1142) and discuss complete, zhao compose unexpectedly shameless to Xiang Jinguo the emperor professes official in feudal times, promise to display silver-colored thin silk every year, person following gold delimits water of the Huaihe River is a bound. From now on northward auspicious land fall enters different race, and corner of be content to retain sovereignty over a part of the country of young royal or imperial government of the Southern Song Dynasty. Careless delays years. Song Xiaozong reachs Ning Zong later, unaltered abasement sue for peace. Period of this one history, do not know to have come out boldly of how many outstanding children, launched inexorable fight, and Liu You is the crackajack delegate on literature. 1210 the New Year's Eve of the traditional Chinese calendar this day, people is busy stay up late or all night on New Year's Eve, and the end that the Liu You that unusually heavy however —— becomes seriously ill has taken the aura in Home Liu You to life. 6 his sons are followed closely defend in bedside, looking at this to army horse silently all one's life, weather-beaten old person. Double eye of Liu You lock is breathing hardly. Abrupt, he " momentary recovery of consciousness just before death " like opened double eye, the eye is twinkling bizarre ray. The son knows father wants what to say, had taken paper and pen at once. In sons support sb with hand below. Liu You props up a body hardly. He is looking think outside the window: All things after the person is dead is all empty, I can close eye originally and go. But only a thing is not at ease fall, that is the country is united. Subsequently he writes down: "Gone yuan know all things sky. But Bei does not see a poetic name of China is the same as. " the child that looks at oneself. He takes pain to so that say: "Child …… child …… people, you must be in the Southern Song Dynasty is legionary drive enemy captive, the …… when unified the land of country is sacred my the soul of a deceased person …… tells me this triumphal good news, let me be in in the nether regions …… of it may not be a bad idea installs …… breath …… ! " say, he continues to write demandingly: "Wang Shibei decides Central Plains day. Domestic hold a memorial ceremony for not forgets to accuse therefore old man. " the pen in his hand falls to the ground, the body falls feebly on the bed, closed double