古诗中的快乐儿童

来源:鬼怪吧 作者:汪金友 唐诗故事 2016-12-30
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近日读到唐代诗人胡令能的一首儿童诗,题为《小儿垂钓》。诗云:“蓬头稚子学垂纶,侧坐莓苔草映身。路人借问遥招手,怕得鱼惊不应人。”一个“蓬头稚子”,斜身在野草中钓鱼。路人向他招手问路,他却怕惊动了鱼儿而不敢回应。诗中没有绚丽的色彩,没有刻意的雕饰,但却似一枝出水的芙蓉,在平淡浅易的叙述中,透露出惟妙的纯真和无限的童趣。

这很容易使人想起杜牧的《清明》:“清明时节雨纷纷,路上行人欲断魂。借问酒家何处有,牧童遥指杏花村。”这个牧童,更像个小雷锋。“欲断魂”的路人刚一提问,他就热情相答,并且用手指明“杏花村”的方向。

唐代的吕岩(吕洞宾),也写过一首《牧童》:“草铺横野六七里,笛弄晚风三四声。归来饱饭黄昏后,不脱蓑衣卧月明。”宽阔的田野,悠扬的笛声,辛劳的牧童放牧归来,吃过了饭连蓑衣都来不及脱,就倒在地上呼呼大睡。只有那皎洁的月光,静静地洒在他的身上。

而清代诗人袁枚所写的《牧童》,又与众不同。一个夏日的午后,袁枚去拜访朋友,忽然远处传来一阵欢快嘹亮的歌声。定睛一看,原来是一个头戴斗笠、身穿短褂、骑着黄牛的牧童在高声唱着《放牛歌》。袁枚正听得如醉,突然歌声戛然而止。原来牧童发现了树上的知了,并熟练地爬上牛背,踮起脚尖,小手伸向一旁粗壮的树干。而机灵的知了,却“嗖”一声飞走了。袁枚见状,哈哈大笑。回家后即赋诗一首:“牧童骑黄牛,歌声震林樾。意欲捕鸣蝉,忽然闭口立。”

相对而言,白居易的《池上》,则更为妙趣横生:“小娃撑小艇,偷采白莲回。不解藏踪迹,浮萍一道开。”池塘中一个个的大莲蓬,清香诱人。一个小孩儿禁不住诱惑,偷偷地撑着小船去摘了几个又赶紧划了回来。但他还不懂得怎样隐藏自己的踪迹,自以为谁都不知道,可是小船驶过,水面的绿色浮萍分出了一道明显的水线。小主人公天真活泼、又淘气又可爱的顽童形象,也就栩栩如生,跃然纸上。

在我的印象中,古代写儿童诗最多的是宋时的杨万里。其中流传最广的是《舟过安仁》:“一叶渔船两小童,收篙停棹坐船中。怪生无雨都张伞,不是遮头是使风。”还有《宿新市徐公店》:“篱落疏疏一径深,树头花落未成阴。儿童急走追黄蝶,飞入菜花无处寻。”黄色的蝴蝶,淹没在黄色的菜花中。令急走的儿童,茫然不知所措。

关于儿童的词句,我知道的只有南宋词人辛弃疾的《清平乐·村居》:“茅檐低小,溪上青青草。醉里吴音相媚好,白发谁家翁媪?大儿锄豆溪东,中儿正织鸡笼。最喜小儿无赖,溪头卧剥莲蓬。”大的小孩在工作,小的小孩在玩耍。一句“最喜小儿无赖”,父母之爱,儿女之欢,都尽在其中。

苏轼说:“无官一身轻,有子万事足。”老舍讲:“小孩是哥伦布,把人带到新大陆。”天真无邪的儿童,不仅给这个世界带来了快乐,而且带来了希望。

Introduce:Read the poem of a children of Hu Lingneng of Tang Dynasty poet recently, the problem is " children go angling " . Shi Yun: "Child of bitter fleabane head learns to hang down black silk ribbon, side sits grass of berry liver mosses mirrors a body. Beck of Yao of passerby may I ask, be afraid of the Jing that get a fish not to answer person. " " child of bitter fleabane head " , inclined body fishs in weed. Passerby to his beck ask the way, he is afraid of however alarmed fish and dare not respond to. There is flowery colour in the poem, act the role of without sedulous carve, but the lotus that is like one branch to give water however, in insipid and simple and easy narration, those who divulge an alone is clever is pure with infinite Tong Qu. This makes the person remembers Du Mu very easily " Pure Brightness " : "Rain of Pure Brightness season in succession, the pedestrian on the road is about to break spirit. Where of wineshop of may I ask has, cowboy Yao shows apricot spends a village. " this cowboy, more resemble a small Lei Feng. "Be about to break spirit " passerby just quized, he answers enthusiasticly, and use hand demonstrate " apricot spends a village " direction. The Lv Yan of Tang Dynasty (Lv Dongbin) , also had written " cowboy " : "Paillasse horizontal stroke is wild 67 lis, flute gets late wind 34 times. Return after full meal is crepuscular, do not take off straw rain cape to lie month bright. " wide field, rising and falling fluted, the cowboy of pains depastures return, had eaten a meal to have not enough time even straw rain cape to take off, breathe out on the ground breathe out to sleep greatly. Have Na Jiaojie's moon only, asperse on his body silently. And what Yuan Mei of clear acting poet writes " cowboy " , extraordinary. Of a summer afternoon, yuan Mei goes visitting a friend, suddenly far transmits a singing of lively loud and clear. Fix eyes on looks, it is one build so Dai Douli, wear the short A Chinese-style unlined garment, cowboy that riding ox singing loudly " put Niu Ge " . Be like,Yuan Mei is listening drunk, abrupt singing stops abruptly. Former cowboy discovered the cicada on the tree, mount bovine back adroitly, stand on tiptoe removes tiptoe, little hand is extended to aside brawny truncal. And argute cicada, however " whiz " flew away. Yuan Mei sees state, burst out laughing. The poem composes namely after coming home: "Cowboy drives cattle, singing shake Lin Yue. Appetent catch cry cicada, shut a mouth to stand suddenly. " relative to character, of Bai Juyi " on the pool " , criterion more full of humour and wit: "Little baby maintains small boat, collect Bai Lian to answer secretly. Indissoluble Tibetan trace, duckweed leaves together. " each big seedpod of the lotus in the pond, faint scent is inviting. A child is unable to bear or endure alluring, on the sly is maintaining a boat to picked a few to delimit rapidly again. But the trace that he still does not know how to conceal his, everybody does not know flatter oneself, but the boat has sailed, the green float cent of surface gave a apparent waterline. Young hero is innocent and lively, naughty lovely imp figure, lifelike also, on appear vividly paper. In my impression, ancient time writes the Yang Moli that children poem is most is Song Shi. Circulate the widest is among them " the boat crosses An Ren "