寻寻觅觅之李清照

来源:鬼怪吧 作者:雪梅 唐诗故事 2016-12-30
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宋代女词人李清照,齐州章丘人(今山东章丘明水镇)。她仰慕陶渊明,佩服他蔑视权贵、回归田园的精神,渴望寻找一份心灵的净土,于是,取其文《归去来兮辞》,为书房题名为“归来堂”,又取文中的“审容膝之易安”之句,自号易安居士。清照的这个自号里,寄托了她的傲视情怀,即使身居陋室也觉得心安。可是,她的心真的能安定吗?

父亲李格非进士出身,在朝为官,学识渊博,是当时著名学者。他出自韩琦门下,曾以文章受知于苏轼,名列“苏门后四学士”之首。母亲也是名门闺秀,知书识礼。可以说,李清照一出生,就掉在蜜罐子里,她是在温暖幸福中,度过了十分快乐的童年。

在这样的家庭环境中,李清照自小就受到了诗书礼乐的熏陶,诗词歌赋,琴棋书画,无所不能。再加上家中往来客人,多是文人政客、达官贵人,独特的政治氛围,使她视界开阔,气质高贵。所以,她小时候,就有了一定的审美能力和鉴赏能力。

独特的环境氛围,文学艺术的濡养,很自然地熏出一颗诗心来。清照用一颗敏感诗化的心,细细地感受着周围的一切,寻觅着内心的美好和纯真。她写景抒情,品评他人,头头是道。她的才气也随着她的诗文,流传开来。她十余岁时就作了《如梦令》,轰动京师,“当时文士莫不击节”。

少女的情怀总是诗。她在诗中享受着自然之美,她流连于花间溪畔,沉醉忘了归路。同时,少年也是情窦初开之时,对异性有了敏感与好奇。她在诗中编织着自己的爱之梦。

18岁那一年,李清照嫁给了21岁的太学生赵明诚。虽是父母之命、媒妁之言,但两人都出身于官宦之家,可谓门当户对。他们都喜诗词,爱文学,日日在一起调琴吟诗,猜书斗茶,乐不可支,更为重要的是两人有共同的志趣爱好——金石研究。特殊的家庭门第,才子佳人的相知相悦,他们的结合该是多么的幸福!

李清照和赵明诚就是一对恩爱的鸳鸯,灵魂合一,爱心相印。这在那个不能自由恋爱的封建时代,有这样美满的爱情,是多么的难得!

新婚时,清照就是那个含羞带娇、温婉多情的小女子,陶醉在幸福的甜蜜里。她的词《减字木兰花》记录了当时喜悦自矜的心情:

卖花担上,买得一枝春欲放。泪染轻匀,犹带彤霞晓露痕。

怕郎猜道,奴面不如花面好。云鬓斜簪,徒要教郎比并看。

新婚是清照爱情幸福的起点。此后,她常和赵明诚在婚姻的小溪里如鱼戏水,恩爱相欢。曲径回廊,花前月下,斗室之内,卧榻之上,两人吟诗接续,调琴作画,研究金石,留下了多么难忘的生活画面!然而,明诚在外做官,清照闲居在家,两人聚少离多。

一次次,离歌声声,似乎有意在考验我们的女词人,为她提供创作的灵感。

生怕离怀别苦,多少事,欲说还休。新来瘦,非干病酒,不是悲秋。

人何处,连天芳草,望断归来路。

从这些凝聚了清照才情和愁思的词句中,我们可以看出,她对赵明诚的眷恋是多么的深浓?无论是相守还是分离,她都是他心中永远的王后,他也是她心中永远的王子。

如果清照和明诚就这样一直相守到老,该多好。可是,天妒红颜,命运偏偏弄人。从个人角度看,李清照和赵明诚的婚姻无疑是幸福的,但他们的婚姻又受到政治和时局的影响。

李赵两家在政治的舞台上时浮时沉,而李清照也因赵明诚的失官和复官,与他时聚时散。

靖康二年(1127年),金人围攻汴京,掠走了徽钦二帝和后妃皇子等数千人,北宋灭亡。李清照在山东青州的爱巢被破坏,归来堂十余屋的书册什物被焚。李清照只携小部分文物共十五车随人群逃难,从此开始了她在南方的苦难生活。她和明诚的婚姻,也在战乱中经历着考验。

南渡第二年,赵明诚被任为京城建康的知府,就在这一年,发生了一件国耻又蒙家羞的事。一天深夜,城里发生叛乱,身为地方长官的赵明诚不是身先士卒指挥平乱,而是偷偷用绳子缒城逃走。叛乱被定之后,赵明诚被朝廷革职。李清照深为丈夫的临阵脱逃感到羞愧,虽然并无争吵,但往昔的鱼水之和已经一去不返,她从此冷淡疏远了赵明诚。

1128年,夫妇二人继续沿长江而上向江西方向流亡,当行至乌江镇时,李清照得知这就是当年项羽兵败自刎之处,她不禁浮想联翩,心潮激荡。面对浩浩江水,吟下了这首千古绝唱《夏日绝句》:

生当作人杰,死亦为鬼雄。至今思项羽,不肯过江东。

这首诗一改易安词婉约愁苦的风格,慷慨激昂,讽刺当时朝廷腐败无能,丧权辱国,不思进取,表现了她坚强豁达、叛逆勇敢的爱国情怀。这首词也似乎暗含有对丈夫赵明诚的不满和警示。

这哪是一个多愁善感的柔软女子的心声呢?倒像一个视死如归的勇士在引吭高歌!字字有力,铿锵悦耳,锤击着失节的赵明诚的心。他听着清照吟咏这首诗,愧悔难当,深深自责。从此便郁郁寡欢,一蹶不振,第二年(1129年)赵明诚被诏回京复职,但不幸病倒,不治而亡,年仅49岁。

赵明诚死后,李清照如一叶孤舟,居无定所,各地漂泊,身心疲惫。在无数个晨昏交替中,她用回忆和思念慢慢疗伤,书写着心灵深处的恋歌,诉说着无尽的凄凉和愁苦。

如果聪明的清照能守着这份感情,痴痴地念想,一直到终老,也许就不会有后来第二次失败的婚姻。

对于她的改嫁,众说纷纭,褒贬不一,但主要原因可能是生活所迫。据李清照所著《投翰林学士綦崇礼启》及南宋人所著《建炎以来系年要录》等资料记载,李清照孤独无依之中,绍兴二年夏(1132年),曾再嫁张汝舟,秋八月离。原来张汝舟娶她,并不是真正的爱慕她,而是早就觊觎她的珍贵收藏,想把它们据为己有。其实,在李清照南渡的过程中,许多文物已经丢失,当婚后张汝舟发现李清照家中并无多少财物时,便大失所望,原形毕露,拳脚相加。

张汝舟的野蛮行径,使李清照难以容忍。像李清照这样坚强聪明的女人,眼里岂能揉进沙子?岂肯受那窝囊罪?李清照到处搜集张汝舟的材料,发现他还有营私舞弊、骗取官职的罪行。于是便一张状纸,告到了朝堂,揭发张汝舟,并要求离婚。经查属实,张汝舟罪名成立,被除名编管广西柳州。

宋代法律规定,妻告夫要判处三年徒刑,尽管如此,她还是高昂着头,毅然决然地走上了大堂,选择了离婚。李清照虽被获准离婚,但也身陷囹圄。可能是她的才名广播,影响太大了,后经翰林学士綦崇礼等亲友的大力营救,才关押九日就获释了。此段婚姻前后不满百日。

这次婚姻的失败,彻底泯灭了李清照的爱情之火。从此,她在漂泊无依、孤苦寂寞中,继续着她的诗词创作,继续着赵明诚未尽的事业——《金石录》的编纂工作。绍兴十三年(1143年)前后,李清照将赵明诚遗作《金石录》校勘整理,表进于朝。开禧元年(1205年)刻书。

当她看到《金石录》装刻成书时,她饱经沧桑的脸上该露出会心的微笑了吧。那是对情深意笃的丈夫的深情爱恋,也是他们爱的见证。但在一个又一个漫漫难挨的日子里,她在思夫、失家、离国的痛苦中,忍受了怎样的煎熬?品尝到了多少刻骨的愁苦啊?

品尝了旷世的孤独后,李清照吟出了奠定她婉约词风格的代表作《声声慢》:

寻寻觅觅,冷冷清清,凄凄惨惨戚戚。乍暖还寒时候,最难将息。三杯两盏淡酒,怎敌他,晚来风急。雁过也,正伤心,却是旧时相识。

满地黄花堆积,憔悴损,如今有谁堪摘。守着窗儿,独自怎生得黑。梧桐更兼细雨,到黄昏,点点滴滴。这次第,怎一个愁字了得!

李清照的一生,既有幸福的童年,也有浪漫的爱情;既有相思的甜蜜,也有婚姻的痛苦;既有丧夫失家的孤独,也有爱国的情感。她在甜美和坎坷中,尝遍了人生的况味,演绎了一生的妩媚和风情。

Introduce:Li Qing of person of word of Song Dai daughter is illuminated, person of grave of neat state constitution (today Qiu Ming water presses down Shandong chapter) . She admires Tao Yuan bright, admire him to despise the spirit with influential officials, rural regression, longing searchs the Sukhavati of a heart, then, take its article " return go Lai Xi demit " , it is for study autograph " return hall " , take again in article " the Yi An of careful look genu " sentence, install lay Buddhist easily from date. In this each order that Qing Dynasty takes, placed her turn up one's nose at feelings, although body room humble room also feels,the heart is installed. But, is her heart true can stable? Father plum case is not one's previous experience of a successful candidate in the highest imperial examinations, hold office at court is an official, learned, it is at that time distinguished scholar. Below fine jade door of his out Han, yu Sushi of Ceng Yiwen Zhang Shouzhi, rank " the 4 bachelor after Su Men " head. The mother also is a daughter of an illustrious family, know a book to know a ceremony. Can say, li Qing is illuminated be born, drop in sweet jar, she is to be in warm happiness, spent very happy childhood. In such domestic environment, li Qing is illuminated from small got Shi Shuli is edified happily, poetic word song is endowed with, painting and calligraphy of musical instrument chess, omnipotent. Plus guest of the come-and-go in the home, it is bookman politician, VIPs more, distinctive political atmosphere, make her visual field open, temperament is high. So, she in one's childhood, had certain aesthetic competence and appreciate capacity. Distinctive environmental atmosphere, the immerse of literary art is raised, very naturally fumes a heart of a poem to come. Qing Dynasty takes the heart that changes with a sensitive poem, fine fine ground is experiencing everything all round, look for is worn inner happiness and pure. She keeps Jing Shu passion, comment on other, clear and logical. Her literary talent also the Shi Wen as her, shed get round. She was made when more than 10 years old " if the dream makes " , resounding Beijing division, "Wen Shimo does not strike a part at that time " . The girl's feelings always is a poem. She is enjoying natural beauty in the poem, she flows even at bank of the brook between the flower, get drunk forgot to put in a road 's charge. In the meantime, the teenager also is first awakening of love when, had to the opposite sex sensitive with curiosity. She is weaving the dream of her love in the poem. A years that 18 years old, li Qing gives birth to Zhao Mingcheng according to the Imperial College that married 21 years old. Although be the character of Shuo of parental life, intermediary, but two people one's previous experience the home at the official, be matched for marriage of it may be said. They are fond of poetic word, love literature, move musical instrument to recite poems together every day, guess a book to fight tea, overjoyed, more important is two people have common interest to like —— inscriptions to consider. Special family families status, the Yue of bosom friend photograph that the talent beautifuls woman, their union should be how happy! Li Qing is illuminated and Zhao Ming Cheng is an affectionate couple of a pair of conjugal love, incorporeal syncretic, love photograph imprints. This is in that cannot the feudal times of free love, have so perfect love, be how god-given! When newly-married, qing Dynasty is illuminated even if that bashfully is taken