水灌晋阳之战

来源:鬼怪吧 作者: 战争故事 2017-10-12
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三家分晋

晋阳之战,是春秋、战国时期周贞定王十四年(前455年),晋国内部四大家族智伯、赵襄子、韩康子、魏桓子之间兼并对手的一场战争。是役历时两年左右,以赵、韩、魏三家联合携手,共同攻灭智伯氏,瓜分其领地而告终。它对中国历史的发展具有较大的影响,因为在这场战争后,逐渐形成了“三家分晋”的历史新局面,史家多将此视为揭开战国历史帷幕的重要标志。

春秋以来长期延绵不断的争霸兼并斗争,严重地消耗了各大国的实力:而社会经济、政治形势的发展,又使各大国内部的各种矛盾日趋尖锐,各大国都感到难以为继。而各小国苦于大国争霸战争带来的灾难,更希望有一个和平的喘息间歇。在这种形势下,弭兵之议随之而起。向戍弭兵就标志着大国争霸战争从此接近尾声,各国内部的倾轧斗争上升为当时社会的主要矛盾。

春秋晚期,这一时期社会政治生活的主要形式,是诸侯国中卿大夫强宗的崛起和国君公室的衰微。当时各大国的诸侯,均被连绵不断的兼并、争霸战争拖得精疲力竭,这样就给各国内部的卿大夫提供了绝好的机会,得以榨取民众的剩余劳动积累财富和以损公室利民众的方式收买人心。这种情况的长期发展,使得一部分卿大夫逐渐强大起来,西周时期“礼乐征伐白天子出”的政治格局,在春秋前中期演变为“礼乐征伐自诸侯出”,这时乃再变为“自大夫出”了。强大起来的卿大夫之间,也不可避免地互相兼并,进行激烈的斗争。这在晋国表现得最为典型。在那里,首先是十多个卿大夫的宗族的财富和势力一天天扩展,而其互相兼并的结果,则只剩下韩、魏、赵、智、中行、范六大宗族,是为“六卿”。这时,晋君的权力已基本被剥夺,国内政治全由“六卿”所主宰。尔后,“六卿”之间又因瓜分权益产生矛盾而进行火并,火并导致范、中行两氏的覆灭。晋国于是只剩赵、韩、魏、智四大贵族集团。可是“四卿”之间也不能相安,更大的冲突很快就来临了,这样,便直接导致了晋阳之战的爆发。

 

唇亡齿寒

智氏、赵氏、韩氏、魏氏四卿,于周贞定王十一年,在内部兼并之战中消灭中行氏和范氏并驱逐晋出公后,掌握了晋国大权。其中智氏势力最大,其主智伯(即智瑶)在朝专权。十四年,智伯仗权势向韩氏、魏氏索地。韩康子、魏桓子惧其以武力相加,被迫各送一万户之邑。

智伯又向赵氏索取皋狼(今山西离石西北)及蔺(今山西离石西)。赵襄子(即赵无恤)因过去曾受智伯侮辱而予以拒绝。智伯联合韩、魏两军,组成三族联军攻赵。赵襄子居耿(今山西河津南),因城简陋不能御敌,令延陵生率车,骑兵先行,自率大军随后,到人心向赵的大城晋阳防守。晋阳城墙完整,府库器用充足,仓廪粮草实备;而且,宫殿四周茂密环生可用来造箭杆的“荻蒿”、“楮楚”,高十余丈。赵襄子下令大造弓箭,积极备战。

智伯率联军到晋阳后,即发动强攻。赵军依托城墙工事,坚守三月,联军始终未能攻克。智伯见强攻无效,便改用围困及水攻的战术,切断所有出入通道:决开汾水灌淹晋阳城。大水淹没城内“三版”(六尺),时间长达三年之久。城内生活非常困难,粮食即将断绝。人们悬釜(炊具)做饭,搭棚居住,士兵体力下降,群臣中投降、外逃的思想也与日俱增:晋阳形势极为严峻。

 

掩耳盗铃

韩、魏参与攻打赵氏,原先就是出于被胁迫,这时对智伯的残暴更有了亲身的感受,开始感到赵如果灭亡后,自己也难免落得被兼并的下场,于是便对作战行动采取消极应付的态度。赵襄子看出了韩、魏两氏与智伯之间这种滋长中的矛盾,决心巧妙加以利用。便派遣张孟谈乘夜潜出城外,秘密会见韩康子和魏桓子,用唇亡齿寒的道理,说服韩、魏两家暗中倒戈。

赵襄子善于利用民心,激发士气,挫败了智伯围攻孤城、速战速决的企图:当智伯以水灌城,守城斗争进入最艰巨的阶段时,赵襄子及守城军民又临危不惧,誓死抵抗,并利用韩、魏与智伯的矛盾,加以争取,瓦解智伯的战线,使其陷于彻底的孤立,为尔后的决战创造了有利的态势。当“伐交”斗争取得成功后,赵襄子又能制定正确的破敌之策,巧妙利用水攻,以其人之道还治其人之身,用水倒灌智伯军营,予敌以出其不意的打击。并及时把握战机,迅速全面出击,取得了聚歼敌人的彻底胜利。由此可见,赵襄子在晋阳之战中表现出卓越的政治、外交、军事才能,不愧为当时杰出的政治家和军事家。

智伯的失败,在很大程度上是他咎由自取。他恃强凌弱,一味迷信武力,失却民心,在政治上陷入了孤立。四面出击,到处树敌,在外交上陷入了被动。在作战中,他长年屯兵于坚城之下,白白损耗许多实力:他昧于对“同盟者”动向的了解,以至为敌所乘。当对方用水攻转而对付自己时,又惊恐失措,未能随机应变,组织有效的抵御,终于身死族灭,一败涂地,为天下笑。

历史影响

韩、魏背后联手,打破堤防,放水倒灌智伯军营,赵军攻入擒杀智伯,并将他的头骨拿来当饮酒之首爵。具有讽刺意味的是,智伯深知水攻得厉害,却被水攻而灭亡,从此晋国由韩、赵、魏三家称霸,此战为日后“三家分晋”奠定了基础。无论是从战争的目的看,还是从战争的手段看,晋阳之战都具有里程碑式的意义。它标志着历史行将打开崭新的一页,战国时代兼并战争开始全面上演了。

 

Introduce:3 divide Jin Jinyang's battle, it is period of age, the Warring States Zhou Zhen decides Wang Shisi year (before 455 years) , advance country ministry 4 big familial Zhi Bai, Zhao assist child, a war of adversary of the annex between Huan Zizhi of Han Kang Zi, the Kingdom of Wei. It is battle last a period of time two years or so, combine with Zhao, Han, Home Wei San hand in hand, attack jointly destroy Zhi Baishi, divide up its feudal and end. It has bigger effect to the development of Chinese history, because be after this war, formed gradually " 3 cent advance " historical new phase, historian regards this as the important sign that reveals heavy curtain of history of the Warring States more. Annex of long-term Yan Mian's ceaseless since age contend for hegemony struggles, used up each actual strength of big country severely: And the development of situation of socioeconomy, politics, make all sorts of contradiction of each big country ministry acerb with each passing day again, each are big national capital feels it is afterwards hard. And the disaster that war of contend for hegemony brings big country of each Xiaoguo suffer from, hope to have a peace more breath intermittent. Below this kind of situation, put down of arms discuss subsequently and case. Xiang Shumi arms indicates war of contend for hegemony is close to a big country from now on end, the conflict with fight of each country interior rises for at that time main contradiction of the society. Age is terminal, the main form that politics of society of this one period lives, it is vassal Dr Guo Zhongqing strong ancestor rise abruptly and of monarch fair room decadent. Each are big at that time of the country vassal, all be pulled exhaustedly by war of continuous and ceaseless annex, contend for hegemony, give each country interior so dear the doctor offerred absolutely good opportunity, be able to the surplus labor of extort people accumulates fortune and the means bribe popular feeling with people of benefit of caustic fair room. The long-term development of this kind of circumstance, make partial dear doctor rises formidably gradually, period of the Western Zhou Dynasty " white the emperor of ceremony happy go on a punitive expedition goes out " political pattern, before age metaphase evolves for " ceremony happy go on a punitive expedition from vassal piece " , turn into again therefore at this moment " proud husband goes " . Rise formidably dear between the doctor, inevitably mutual annex, have intense accuse and denounce at a meeting. This shows most typically in Jin Guobiao. Over, it is above all more than 10 dear the fortune of the doctor's clan and force expand every day, and its are mutual the result of annex, remain Han, the Kingdom of Wei, Zhao only, wisdom, in big clan of travel, Fan Liu, it is to be " 6 dear " . At this moment, jin Jun's power is stripped basically already, domestic politics is complete by " 6 dear " place dictate. Thereafter, "6 dear " between produce contradiction because of dividing up rights and interests again and undertake open fight between factions, open fight between factions is brought about model, medium of a two family names complete collapse. Advance country then remnant Zhao, Han, the Kingdom of Wei, wisdom group of 4 big nobles. But " 4 dear " between also cannot install, bigger conflict came very quickly, such, of the war that caused Jin Yang directly erupt. If the lips are gone family name of wisdom family name, Zhao, Han, the Kingdom of Wei 4 dear, yu Zhouzhen is decided king